This study updates previous estimates of the economic burden of diagnosed diabetes, with calculation of the health resource use and indirect costs attributable to diabetes in 2022.
We combine the demographics of the U.S. population in 2022 with diabetes prevalence, from national survey data, epidemiological data, health care cost data, and economic data, into a Cost of Diabetes Economic Model to estimate the economic burden at the population and per capita levels. Health resource use and associated medical costs are analyzed by age, sex, race/ethnicity, comorbid condition, and health service category. Data sources include national surveys (2015–2020 or most recent available), Medicare standard analytic files (2020), and administrative claims data from 2018 to 2021 for a large commercially insured population in the U.S.
The total estimated cost of diagnosed diabetes in the U.S. in 2022 is $412.9 billion, including $306.6 billion in direct medical costs and $106.3 billion in indirect costs attributable to diabetes. For cost categories analyzed, care for people diagnosed with diabetes accounts for 1 in 4 health care dollars in the U.S., 61% of which are attributable to diabetes. On average people with diabetes incur annual medical expenditures of $19,736, of which approximately $12,022 is attributable to diabetes. People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical expenditures 2.6 times higher than what would be expected without diabetes. Glucose-lowering medications and diabetes supplies account for ∼17% of the total direct medical costs attributable to diabetes. Major contributors to indirect costs are reduced employment due to disability ($28.3 billion), presenteeism ($35.8 billion), and lost productivity due to 338,526 premature deaths ($32.4 billion).
The inflation-adjusted direct medical costs of diabetes are estimated to rise 7% from 2017 and 35% from 2012 calculations (stated in 2022 dollars). Following decades of steadily increasing prevalence of diabetes, the overall estimated prevalence in 2022 remains relatively stable in comparison to 2017. However, the absolute number of people with diabetes has grown and contributes to increased health care expenditures, particularly per capita spending on inpatient hospital stays and prescription medications. The enormous economic toll of diabetes continues to burden society through direct medical and indirect costs.
This ADA Statement was reviewed and approved by the American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee in September 2023.
This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.24324373.