Eighteen million American women are living with diabetes, and 43.7 million women have prediabetes (1–3). Diabetes is well known to increase the risks of multiple acute and chronic medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, autonomic and peripheral neuropathy, and retinopathy. However, diabetes is also associated with increased risk of a wide range of vulvovaginal concerns. Acute, chronic, and recurrent vulvovaginal conditions—both infectious and noninfectious—can occur, especially when blood glucose is inadequately controlled (4,5). The risk of some vulvovaginal conditions is higher in women with type 1 diabetes than in those with type 2 diabetes, whereas other conditions are associated with obesity and occur more frequently in the setting of type 2 diabetes (6,7).

The development of vaginal noninfectious conditions and infections is a complex process regardless of diabetes status and is affected by sex hormones, homeostasis of...

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