How to Assess

  • A1C measurement

  • Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using appropriate metrics (e.g., time in range [TIR] and/or glucose management indicator [GMI])

When to Assess

A calculator for converting A1C results into eAG, in either mg/dL or mmol/L, is available at professional.diabetes.org/eAG.

Data in parentheses are a 95% CI.

Adapted from Nathan DM, Kuenen J, Borg R, Zheng H, Schoenfeld D; A1c-Derived Average Glucose Study Group. Translating the A1C assay into estimated average glucose values. Diabetes Care 2008;31:1473–1478.

Glycemic goals should be individualized and periodically reevaluated.

Hypoglycemia is categorized into three levels based on blood glucose concentrations and symptom severity. Level 1 is glucose <70 mg/dL (<3.9 mmol/L) but ≥54 mg/dL (≥3.0 mmol/L). Level 2 is glucose <54 mg/dL (<3.0 mmol/L). Level 3 is a severe event characterized by altered mental and/or physical status requiring assistance for treatment of hypoglycemia, irrespective of glucose level.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at https://www.diabetesjournals.org/journals/pages/license.