How to Assess

  • A1C measurement

  • Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using appropriate metrics (e.g., time in range [TIR] and/or glucose management indicator [GMI])

When to Assess

A calculator for converting A1C results into eAG, in either mg/dL or mmol/L, is available at

Data in parentheses are a 95% CI.

Adapted from Nathan DM, Kuenen J, Borg R, Zheng H, Schoenfeld D; A1c-Derived Average Glucose Study Group. Translating the A1C assay into estimated average glucose values. Diabetes Care 2008;31:1473–1478.

Glycemic goals should be individualized and periodically reevaluated.

Hypoglycemia is categorized into three levels based on blood glucose concentrations and symptom severity. Level 1 is glucose <70 mg/dL (<3.9 mmol/L) but ≥54 mg/dL (≥3.0 mmol/L). Level 2 is glucose <54 mg/dL (<3.0 mmol/L). Level 3 is a severe event characterized by altered mental and/or physical status requiring assistance for treatment of hypoglycemia, irrespective of glucose level.

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