The worldwide diabetes epidemic has created an unsustainable financial and personal crisis for health care systems and for patients and their families. At the same time, the ability of patients to maintain useful vision has never been greater. Screening of people who are at risk and timely institution of treatment, combined with coordination of systematic and ophthalmic care, provides the best outlook for people with diabetes.

The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Genentech or the American Diabetes Association. The content was developed by the authors and does not represent the policy or position of the American Diabetes Association, any of its boards or committees, or any of its journals or their editors or editorial boards.

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Dualities of Interest

T.W.G. has received research support from Zebra Biologics and consulting fees from Novo Nordisk.

C.C.W. has received research support from Adverum, Allergan, Apellis, Clearside, Genentech, Roche, Neurotech, Novartis, Opthea, Regeneron, Regenxbio, Samsung, and Santen; is a consultant for Adverum, Alimera Sciences, Allegro, Allergan, Apellis, Bayer, Clearside, EyePoint, Genentech, Kodiak, Novartis, Regeneron, Regenxbio, and Roche; and is a speaker for Regeneron.

B.A.C. has been a speaker for Novo Nordisk and served on an advisory board for Regeneron.

No other potential conflicts of interest relevant to this compendium were reported.


Editorial and project management services were provided by Debbie Kendall of Kendall Editorial in Richmond, VA.

Author Contributions

All authors researched and wrote their respective sections. Lead author T.W.G. reviewed all content and is the guarantor of this work.

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