Effective treatment of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains a large unmet medical need. Within the disease’s complicated pathogenic mechanism, activation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs)–receptor for AGE (RAGE) axis plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of DKD. To provide a new therapeutic strategy against DKD progression, we developed a vaccine against RAGE. Three rounds of immunization of mice with the RAGE vaccine successfully induced antigen-specific serum IgG antibody titers and elevated antibody titers were sustained for at least 38 weeks. In addition, RAGE vaccination significantly attenuated the increase in urinary albumin excretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice (type 1 diabetes model) and leptin-receptor–deficient db/db mice (type 2 diabetes model). In microscopic analyses, RAGE vaccination suppressed glomerular hypertrophy and mesangial expansion in both diabetic models and significantly reduced glomerular basement membrane thickness in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Results of an in vitro study indicated that the serum IgG antibody elicited by RAGE vaccination suppressed the expression of AGE-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 in endothelial cells. Thus, our newly developed RAGE vaccine attenuated the progression of DKD in mice and is a promising potential therapeutic strategy for patients with DKD.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.14791647.

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