Thermogenic brown or beige adipocytes dissipate energy in the form of heat and thereby counteract obesity and related metabolic complications. The miRNA cluster miR-130b/301b is highly expressed in adipose tissues and has been implicated in metabolic diseases as a posttranscriptional regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism. We investigated the roles of miR-130b/301b in regulating beige adipogenesis in vivo and in vitro. miR-130b/301b declined in adipose progenitor cells during beige adipogenesis, while forced overexpression of miR-130b-3p or miR-301b-3p suppressed uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and mitochondrial respiration, suggesting that a decline in miR-130b-3p or miR-301b-3p is required for adipocyte precursors to develop the beige phenotype. Mechanistically, miR-130b/301b directly targeted AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα1) and suppressed peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α), key regulators of brown adipogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Mice lacking the miR-130b/301b miRNA cluster showed reduced visceral adiposity and less weight gain. miR-130b/301b null mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance, increased UCP1 and AMPK activation in subcutaneous fat (inguinal white adipose tissue [iWAT]), and increased response to cold-induced energy expenditure. Together, these data identify the miR-130b/301b cluster as a new regulator that suppresses beige adipogenesis involving PGC-1α and AMPK signaling in iWAT and is therefore a potential therapeutic target against obesity and related metabolic disorders.

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