Environmental phenols are ubiquitous endocrine disruptors and putatively diabetogenic. However, data during pregnancy are scant. We investigated the prospective associations between pregnancy phenol concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. In a nested matched case-control study of 111 individuals with GDM and 222 individuals without GDM within the prospective PETALS cohort, urinary bisphenol A (BPA), BPA substitutes (bisphenol F and bisphenol S [BPS]), benzophenone-3, and triclosan were quantified during the first and second trimesters. Cumulative concentrations across the two times were calculated using the area under the curve (AUC). Multivariable conditional logistic regression examined the association of individual phenols with GDM risk. We conducted mixture analysis using Bayesian kernel machine regression. We a priori examined effect modification by Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) race/ethnicity resulting from the case-control matching and highest GDM prevalence among A/PIs. Overall, first-trimester urinary BPS was positively associated with increased risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio comparing highest vs. lowest tertile [aORT3 vs. T1] 2.12 [95% CI 1.00–4.50]). We identified associations among non-A/Ps, who had higher phenol concentrations than A/PIs. Among non-A/PIs, first-trimester BPA, BPS, and triclosan were positively associated with GDM risk (aORT3 vs. T1 2.91 [95% CI 1.05–8.02], 4.60 [1.55–13.70], and 2.88 [1.11–7.45], respectively). Triclosan in the second trimester and AUC were positively associated with GDM risk among non-A/PIs (P < 0.05). In mixture analysis, triclosan was significantly associated with GDM risk. Urinary BPS among all and BPA, BPS, and triclosan among non-A/PIs were associated with GDM risk. Pregnant individuals should be aware of these phenols’ potential adverse health effects.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.21171337.

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