Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can differentiate into vascular lineages and participate in vascular remodeling. Perivascular ADSCs (PV-ADSCs) draw attention because of their unique location. The heterogeneity of subcutaneous (SUB) and abdominal ADSCs were well addressed, but PV-ADSCs’ heterogeneity has not been investigated. In this study, we applied single-cell analysis to compare SUB-ADSCs and PV-ADSCs regarding their subpopulations, functions, and cell fates. We uncovered four subpopulations of PV-ADSCs (Dpp4+, Col4a2+/Icam1+, Clec11a+/Cpe+, and Sult1e1+ cells), among which the Clec11a+ subpopulation potentially participated in and regulated PV-ADSC differentiation toward a smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype. Distinct characteristics between PV-ADSCs and SUB-ADSCs were revealed.

Y.X., Y.J., and Y. Lu contributed equally to this work. Y.X. and M.X. supervised the work equally.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.16930936.

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