An important factor in the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the deficiency of inhibitory immune checkpoint ligands, specifically programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and Galectin-9 (Gal-9), in β-cells. Hence, modulation of the pancreas infiltrated T lymphocytes by exogenous PD-L1 or Gal-9 is an ideal approach for treating the new-onset T1D. Herein, we genetic engineered the macrophage cells to generate artificial extracellular vesicles (aEVs) overexpressing PD-L1 and Gal-9, which could restrict the islets autoreactive T lymphocytes and protect β-cells from destruction. Intriguingly, overexpressing Gal-9 spurred macrophage polarization to M2 phenotype with immune suppressive attribute. Alternatively, both of PD-L1 and Gal-9 presenting aEVs (PD-L1-Gal-9 aEVs) favorably adhere to T cells via the interaction of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 or T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM-3)/Gal-9. Moreover, PD-L1-Gal-9 aEVs prominently promoted effector T cell apoptosis and splenic regulatory T cells (Treg) cells differentiation in vitro. Virtually, PD-L1-Gal-9 aEVs efficaciously reversed the new-onset hyperglycemia in the NOD mice, prevented T1D progress, and declined the proportion and activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrating the pancreas notably, which together contributed to preserving the residual β-cells survival and mitigating the hyperglycemia.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.25837810.

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