Type 1 diabetes arises from the selective destruction of pancreatic β-cells by autoimmune mechanisms and intracellular pathways driven by Janus (JAK)-kinase mediated STAT isoforms (especially STAT1 & STAT2) are implicated as mediators of β-cell demise. Despite this, the molecular mechanisms that regulate JAK-STAT signalling in β-cells during the autoimmune attack remain only partially disclosed and the factors acting to antagonise pro- inflammatory STAT1 signalling are uncertain. We have recently implicated Signal Regulatory Protein (SIRP)-α in promoting β-cell viability in the face of ongoing islet autoimmunity and now reveal that this protein controls the availability of a cytosolic lysine deacetylase, HDAC6, whose activity regulates the phosphorylation and activation of STAT1. We provide evidence that STAT1 serves as a substrate for HDAC6 in β-cells and that sequestration of HDAC6 by SIRPα in response to anti-inflammatory cytokines (such as interleukin-13) leads to increased STAT1 acetylation. This then impairs the ability of STAT1 to promote gene transcription in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines including interferon-gamma (IFNγ). We further find that SIRPα is lost from the β-cells of subjects with recent-onset type 1 diabetes under conditions when HDAC6 is retained and STAT1 levels are increased. On this basis, we report a previously unrecognised role for cytokine-induced regulation of STAT1 acetylation in the control of β- cell viability and propose that targeted inhibition of HDAC6 activity may represent a novel therapeutic modality to promote β-cell viability in the face of active islet autoimmunity.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.26018608.

This content is only available via PDF.
Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at https://www.diabetesjournals.org/content/license.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview
You do not currently have access to this content.