An attempt has been made to repeat the observations that anaerobiosis, 2:4-DNP, and the sodium salts of cyanide, arsenite, arsenate, and salicylate all stimulate the glucose uptake of hemidiaphragms in vitro in a way that has been postulated to be analogous to the action of insulin. The glucose uptakes of hemidiaphragms and fat pads have been measured in bicarbonate and phosphate buffers. In no case did anaerobiosis stimulate glucose uptake. Anaerobiosis reduced but did not abolish the effect of insulin.
The effects of the cell poisons were diverse and appeared to be related to both the tissue used and the medium employed. The sodium salts of cyanide, arsenite, and arsenate stimulated the glucose uptake of hemidiaphragms in bicarbonate buffer, whereas, only arsenate was effective in phosphate buffer. When fat pads were incubated in bicarbonate buffer, arsenate and cyanide increased glucose uptake; in phosphate buffer only arsenate was effective. In addition, 2:4-DNP markedly inhibited the glucose uptake of hemidiaphragms in both bicarbonate and phosphate buffers but was without effect on the fat pads. Most of the cell poisons reduced or abolished the effect of added insulin.
These results are discussed with relation to the theory that insulin acts to divert energy away from a process that restricts the entry of glucose into the cell under basal conditions.