Insulin serves as the body's signal for the fed or fasted state. High insulin levels, the “fed” signal, initiate tissue uptake and storage of fuels. Low insulin levels, the “fasted” signal, initiate mobilization of stored fuels from tissue stores, the rate being proportional to the lowness of the insulin. Certain metabolic states such as obesity or trauma alter the concentration of insulin at which no net transfer of fuel occurs, resulting in insulin resistance or hyper-sensitivity.

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