Chronic clamping of plasma glucose levels at ≥250 mg/dl in four partially depancreatized but previously nondiabetic dogs was followed within 2 wk by persistent hyperglycemia and glycosuria of ≤500 g/day, ketonuria, and weight loss. Three of the four dogs required daily insulin injections to control these catabolic manifestations. There was no evidence of spontaneous improvement of the severe diabetic state during the 39–69 days of observation after discontinuation of intravenous glucose infusion. Impairment of intravenous glucose tolerance, loss of the insulin response to glucose and arginine, fasting hyperglucagonemia, exaggerated glucagon responsiveness to arginine, and a significant reduction in sensitivity to insulin were characteristic of all diabetic dogs. Morphometric analysis of the endocrine pancreas revealed a profound reduction in the number and size of identifiable islets of the hyperglycemic dogs compared with islets from their own pancreases resected months earlier and with those from pancreatic remnants of eight subtotally depancreatized control dogs that had not been subjected to chronic hyperglycemic clamping. The reduction in number and size of islets of the hyperglycemic dogs was largely the consequence of depletion of insulin-containing cells and was similar to that of dogs with long-standing alloxan-induced diabetes. In the eight control dogs, clinical evidence of diabetes did not develop during a follow-up period of 193–296 days. In this group, there was no evidence of diminution of intravenous glucose tolerance, of the insulin response to glucose or arginine, or of insulin sensitivity as determined by an acute hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic clamp. The number and size of islets and number of β-cells in pancreatic remnants from these dogs did not differ morphometrically from those of the pancreatic segment that had been resected. We conclude that in subtotally depancreatized but nondiabetic dogs, maintenance of constant hyperglycemia of ≥ 250 mg/dl by means of intravenous glucose infusion causes a severe, persistent, and often insulin-requiring diabetic state that does not occur in the absence of the hyperglycemia.

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