Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) during pregnancy in Pima Indian women results in offspring who have a higher prevalence of NIDDM (45%) at age 20–24 yr than in offspring of nondiabetic women (1.4%) or offspring of prediabetic women (8.6%), i.e., women who developed diabetes only after the pregnancy. These differences persist after taking into account paternal diabetes, age at onset of diabetes in the parents, and the offspring's weight relative to height. The findings suggest that the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of the development of diabetes and that its effect is in addition to effects of genetic factors.

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