Rats from four experimental treatment groups, including fed controls, 24- to 30-h fasted, dexamethasone-treated, and intraperitoneal glucose-treated, were used to assess the effects of these treatments on the immunohistochemically detectable islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) content in the pancreatic islets. Isolated perfused pancreases from additional animals in these groups were used to assess insulin and IAPP secretion and relative amounts of these hormones secreted into the perfusate under low-glucose (2.75 mM) and high-glucose (16.7 mM) conditions. Insulin and IAPP concentrations in the perfusate were measured by radioimmunoassays. Titration of immunohistochemical staining revealed the highest levels of IAPP in the dexamethasone- and glucose-treated groups, followed by the fed controls; the least amount was observed in the fasted group. In the perfusion experiments, the dexamethasone-treated group had significantly higher IAPP secretion than did all of the other groups under stimulation with 16.7 mM glucose. In addition, both dexamethasone treatment and glucose treatment increased the relative amount of IAPP to insulin secretion during 16.7 mM glucose stimulation in comparison with fed controls and fasted groups. Fasting tended to have the opposite effect and significantly decreased the relative amount of IAPP to insulin secreted under stimulation with 16.7 mM glucose. In all groups, IAPP and insulin secretion were generally parallel, which is consistent with their colocalization in the β-cell secretory vesicle and co-release after glucose stimulation. However, significant differences in the insulin-IAPP ratios between experimental groups is consistent with the hypothesis that production of IAPP and insulin are regulated differently in the β-cell. The increased secretion of IAPP in severe hyperglycemia may also facilitate the formation of IAPP-derived islet amyloid deposits, thus contributing to progressive worsening of the diabetic state.

This content is only available via PDF.