The in vivo kinetics of the HDL apolipoproteins (apo) A-I and A-II were studied in six subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and six control subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), using a stable isotope approach. During a 12-h primed constant infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine, tracer enrichment was determined in apoA-I and apoA-II from ultracentrifugally isolated HDL. The rates of HDL apoA-I and apoA-II production and catabolism were estimated using a one-compartment model-based analysis. Triglycerides were higher in IGT subjects (1.33 +/- 0.21 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.27 mmol/l, P < 0.05), but were within the normal range. HDL cholesterol and apoA-I levels were significantly lower in subjects with IGT (1.07 +/- 0.15 vs. 1.36 +/- 0.14 mmol/l, P < 0.05; 0.94 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.34 +/- 0.07 g/l, P < 0.01). In IGT subjects, HDL composition was significantly altered, characterized by an increase in HDL triglycerides (4.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 3.2 +/- 1.0%, P < 0.05) and HDL phospholipids (34.7 +/- 2.6 vs. 27.5 +/- 5.8%, P < 0.05) and a decrease in HDL cholesteryl esters (10.1 +/- 2.0 vs. 12.7 +/- 2.9%, P < 0.05) and HDL apoA-I (31.5 +/- 4.4 vs. 43.2 +/- 2.4%, P < 0.05). The mean fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of HDL apoA-I was significantly higher in IGT subjects (0.34 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.03 day(-1), P < 0.01), while the HDL apoA-I production rate (PR), as well as the PR and FCR of HDL apoA-II, showed no differences between the two groups. There were significant correlations between HDL apoA-I FCR and the following parameters: HDL apoA-I (r = -0.902, P < 0.001), HDL cholesterol (r = -0.797, P = 0.001), plasma triglycerides (r = 0.743, P < 0.01), HDL triglycerides (r = 0.696, P < 0.01), and cholesterol ester transfer protein activity (r = 0.646, P < 0.01). We observed a strong positive association between increased apoA-I catabolism and insulin (r = 0.765, P < 0.01) and proinsulin (r = 0.797, P < 0.01) concentrations. These data support the hypothesis that the decrease in HDL cholesterol and apoA-I levels in IGT is principally the result of an enhanced apoA-I catabolism. The latter seems to be an early metabolic finding in IGT even when other lipid parameters, especially plasma triglycerides, still appear to be not or only weakly affected.
In vivo evidence for increased apolipoprotein A-I catabolism in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.
J Pietzsch, U Julius, S Nitzsche, M Hanefeld; In vivo evidence for increased apolipoprotein A-I catabolism in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.. Diabetes 1 December 1998; 47 (12): 1928–1934. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.47.12.1928
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