The human plasma-cell membrane differentiation antigen-1 (PC-1) has been shown to inhibit insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity. Recently, a K121Q polymorphism in the human PC-1 gene was found in a Sicilian population and was shown to be strongly associated with insulin resistance. The objectives of the present investigation were to examine in the Danish Caucasian population whether the K121Q variant was associated with type 2 diabetes or, in glucose-tolerant subjects, with impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity. We genotyped 404 Danish type 2 diabetic patients and found that the allele frequency of the variant was 0.14 (95% CI 0.12-0.16), whereas the allele frequency was 0.16 (95% CI 0.13-0.19) among 237 matched glucose-tolerant control subjects (P = 0.6). In the control subjects, there were no significant differences among wild-type, heterozygous, or homozygous subjects in regard to 1) serum insulin and plasma glucose levels at fasting, 60 min, or 120 min during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or 2) the estimates of insulin resistance obtained from the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Furthermore, we investigated the impact of the variant in 2 other Danish population samples that comprised 356 young healthy subjects and 226 glucose-tolerant offspring of type 2 diabetic probands, respectively. In all of the study populations, the polymorphism was not associated with an altered insulin sensitivity index as estimated from an intravenous glucose tolerance test in combination with an intravenous injection of tolbutamide. In addition, among the 226 offspring, the variations in serum insulin and serum C-peptide responses measured during an OGTT were not related to the PC-1 genotype. In conclusion, the K121Q polymorphism of the human PC-1 gene is not associated with type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance among Danish Caucasians.

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