Introduction: Regular PCP encounters are associated with wellbeing; there is limited evidence to support the ideal PCP encounter cadence to optimize patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to measure the association between PCP encounter cadence and medication adherence and diabetes control, among those newly diagnosed with T2DM.
Methods: A cohort of 7,106 persons enrolled in a Medicare Advantage health plan and newly diagnosed with T2DM between 7/1/12-6/30/13, was identified and followed for 36 months. Two methods measured PCP encounter cadence: total PCP encounters (frequency) and quarters with PCP encounter (regularity). Proportion of days covered (PDC) assessed noninsulin diabetes medication (NIDM) adherence (PDC ≥80.0%). Diabetes control was defined as A1c ≤ 8.0%. Logistic regression was used to measure the relationship between PCP encounter cadence and outcomes (NIDM adherence, diabetes control). Covariates included patient demographics, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, chronic conditions, healthcare utilization, insulin use, and prior NIDM adherence and diabetes control.
Results: Overall, 5,212 and 326 people met inclusion criteria for the NIDM adherence and diabetes control analyses, respectively. Adjusted models indicated that each additional PCP encounter was associated with a 12.3% increase in the likelihood of NIDM adherence (95% CI 1.10, 1.15), and each additional quarter with a PCP encounter was associated with a 27.4% increase in the likelihood of NIDM adherence (95% CI 1.22, 1.33). PCP encounters (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.00, 1.12) and quarters with a PCP encounter (OR 1.13; 95% CI 0.98, 1.30) were directionally associated with diabetes control.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that frequency and regularity of PCP encounters were associated with medication adherence. This study contributes to the data needed to establish evidence-based guidelines for PCP encounter cadence, for those newly diagnosed with T2DM.
S.E. Wixson: None. J. Dobbins: Employee; Self; Humana Inc. T.A. Cordier: Employee; Self; Humana Inc.. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Humana Inc.. G. Haugh: None. A. Renda: None. L.E. Happe: Employee; Self; Humana. Other Relationship; Self; Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy. A. Turchin: Research Support; Self; Sanofi-Aventis. Advisory Panel; Self; Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Monarch Medical Technologies. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Brio Systems. Research Support; Self; Eli Lilly and Company.