The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a physiologic increase in plasma glucose concentration on endogenous glucose production (EGP) in healthy NGT individuals. 16 NGT subjects [8 with and 8 without family history of T2DM (9M/7F, age = 44± 3 years, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m2)] participated in a 3-step hyperinsulinemic (10, 20, 40 mU/m2 min) euglycemic clamp before and after a 48 hour glucose infusion to increase plasma glucose conc by ∼45 mg/dl above baseline (89±4 to 136±4.9 mg/dl). EGP was measured with [3-3H] glucose and gluconeogenic rate was measured following administration of deuterated water. Plasma FFA, glucagon, lactate, glycerol and alanine concentrations also were measured. Following 48 hours of glucose infusion basal EGP increased from 2.05±0.09 to 3.06±0. mg/kg min (p=0.003) and hepatic insulin resistance index (EGP X Fasting Plasma Insulin) increased markedly and similarly (25.1±1.0 vs. 48.3± 3.2, p<0.005). The baseline plasma glucagon concentration tended to be higher following 48 hours of glucose infusion (64±3 vs. 77± 8 pg/ml, p=0.2) while the product of the plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations was markedly increased (540 ± 56 vs. 1336 ± 262, p=0.004). Although the baseline plasma FFA concentration was markedly reduced following 48 hours of glucose infusion (0.482 ±0.to 0.055± 0.01mM), there was no difference in plasma glycerol concentration (13.4±1.2 vs. 13.3 ± 2.2 mg/L p=ns). There were small increases in both the plasma lactate and alanine concentrations. Total body insulin sensitivity declined from 8.75±2.1 to 6.92± 6 mg.kg/min (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Chronic (48 hr) physiologic hyperglycemia to levels seen in T2DM increases basal hepatic glucose production and induces hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance in healthy NGT subjects. These results demonstrate, for the first time that glucotoxicity causes resistance to the suppressive effect of insulin on hepatic glucose production.
D. Tripathy: None. A. Merovci: None. E.R. Maldonado Corchado: None. R. Basu: Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca. R.A. DeFronzo: Speaker-s Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca, Novo Nordisk Inc.. Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca, Novo Nordisk Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Elcelyx Therapeutics, Inc., Intarcia Therapeutics, Inc.. Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc..