Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for GDM in next pregnancies.The aims of this observational study are to measure GDM recurrence rate in post index pregnancy of women with prior GDM and to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes and pancreatic beta cells function in two consecutive pregnancies.
Methods: Longitudinal observational study in 68 women with GDM in index pregnancy (G1), followed by a post index pregnancy (G2) and normal glucose tolerance in-between [G1 vs. G2: age 32,1±4,6 vs. 35,5±4,7 years, BMI 24,5 (19,2-42,7) vs. 24,7 (17,5-42,2) kg/m2, ns]. GDM diagnosis according to IADPSG criteria. Statistics: SPSS.
Results: significantly earlier first visit gestational age in G2 [17 (6-36) weeks] than in G1 [28,5 (8-35) weeks] (p<0,001). GDM recurrence rate was 85,3% (n58) 3,32±1,8 years after index pregnancy: of these women, n31 (45,6%) [36.5±4 years; BMI 24.7 (19.3-42.1) Kg/m2] developed GDM in early pregnancy (16-18 weeks), while n27 (39,7%) [35.66±4 years; BMI 25.26 (17.6-42.2) Kg/m2] at the end of second trimester (24-28 weeks). Women who reported a negative OGTT at both time-points (n10, 14,7%) [33.7±5.5 years; BMI 20.45 (17.5-25.4) Kg/m2;] showed a significantly lower BMI (p<0,0015) and a higher disposition index (p=0.07) than those with positive OGTT. In women who did not relapse GDM, no significant inter-pregnancy weight gain was observed and GDM diagnosis in G1 was performed by post-load OGTT points. Lower 24-28thOGTT post load blood glucose levels and AUCglucose were found in G2 (p<0,02, Wilcoxon). No pancreatic beta cells function deterioration was recorded in post index pregnancy. We found a lower rate of cumulative neonatal adverse outcomes in G2 (30,2% in G1 vs. 25,7% in G2, p<0,04) and a reduced maternal hypertension rate even though it did not reach the level of significance (4vs8).
Conclusions: GDM relapsed in the majority of women with previous GDM with no weight gain between pregnancies and no pancreatic function deterioration. However, a normal OGTT in second pregnancy was found in normoweight women.
C. Giuliani: None. O. Bitterman: None. F. Amorosi: None. C. Festa: None. A. Napoli: None.