Objective: Gastrointestinal hormones play a key role in glucose metabolism and satiety. We examined the acute effect of meal composition on these hormones in three population groups.
Research Design and Methods: A randomized crossover design was used to test the effects of two energy- and macronutrient-matched meals: a processed-meat (M-meal) and a vegan (V-meal) on gastrointestinal hormones, and satiety in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D, n=20), obese participants (O, n=20), and healthy controls (H, n=20). Plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide -1 (GLP-1), amylin, and peptide YY (PYY) were determined at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Satiety was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis.
Results: An increase in postprandial secretion of GLP-1 was observed after the V-meal in T2D (by 30.5%; 95% CI 21.2 to 40.7%; p<0.001) and H (by 15.8%; 95% CI 8.6 to 23.5%; p=0.01). An increase in postprandial plasma concentrations of amylin was observed in all groups after the V-meal: by 15.7% in T2D (95% CI 11.8 to 19.6%; p<0.001); by 11.5% in O (95% CI 7.8 to 15.3%; p=0.03); and by 13.8% in H (95% CI 8.4 to 19.5%; p<0.001). An increase in postprandial values of PYY after the V-meal was significant only in H (by 18.9%; 95% CI 7.5 to 31.3%; p=0.03). The participants in all groups reported greater satiety after the V-meal: by 9.0% in T2D (95% CI 4.4 to 13.6%; p=0.004); by 18.7% in O (95% CI 12.8 to 24.6%; p<0.001); and by 25.0% in H (95% CI 18.2 to 31.7%; p<0.001).
Conclusions: Our results indicate there is an increase in gut hormones and satiety, following consumption of a single plant-based meal when compared with an energy- and macronutrient-matched standard meat meal.
J. Veleba: None. M. Klementova: None. L. Belinova: None. M. Haluzik: None. R. Pavlovicova: None. M. Hill: None. T. Pelikanova: None. H. Kahleova: None.
Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic (AZV15-27338A); Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine (MZCR00023001)