Background: Given the paucity of treatment options for youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D), insulin is commonly used to rapidly reverse gluco-toxicity. Subsequently, some youth with short duration T2D can be weaned off insulin soon after diagnosis. We analyzed data from the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) Registry to determine how long glycemic control is maintained off insulin.

Methods: Youth with T2D in the PDC Registry on metformin alone or lifestyle therapy alone upon registry enrollment but had previously been on insulin were included in this study (N=183). The primary outcome was time to treatment failure, defined by need to restart insulin or other diabetes medication (including metformin). Clinical data at enrollment and follow-up were analyzed using logistic regression to assess risk factors for treatment failure.

Results: Of participants who had previously been on insulin therapy (58% female, 53% Hispanic, mean age 15 ± 2 years, median diabetes duration 1.7 years), 54% (98/183) experienced treatment failure. In the subgroup on metformin alone at enrollment (N=140), 45% restarted insulin, while in the lifestyle alone subgroup (N=43), 81% restarted insulin or other diabetes medication. Time to treatment failure was a median of 1.2 years. High HbA1c (mean 7.7% vs. 6.1% in the treatment failure group vs. non-failure group; p<0.001) and lifestyle alone treatment regimen (p=0.003) at enrollment were associated with treatment failure. At time of treatment failure, HbA1c had increased (mean: 1.2%) and BMI z-score decreased (mean: 0.07 kg/m2) from time of enrollment. HbA1c at diagnosis was not associated with treatment failure (mean 10.8 vs. 10.6% in the treatment failure group vs. non-failure group).

Conclusion: Youth with T2D previously treated with insulin have a high treatment failure rate on lifestyle or metformin therapy alone and are likely to restart insulin therapy. Youth with T2D should be monitored closely for worsening glycemic control.


R. Wolf: None. P. Cheng: None. R.L. Gal: None. L.C. Beaulieu: None. C. Kollman: Other Relationship; Self; Dexcom, Inc., Tandem Diabetes Care. E.M. Isganaitis: None. S.N. Magge: None. L.D. Mastrandrea: Board Member; Self; American Academy of Pediatrics. Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca, JDRF, Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi-Aventis. G.J. Klingensmith: Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Novo Nordisk Inc., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. W.V. Tamborlane: Consultant; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Eli Lilly and Company, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi US. Other Relationship; Self; Eisai Inc., MannKind Corporation. M.A. Van Name: None.


Boehringer Ingelheim; Novo Nordisk; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited

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