Objectives: While a large proportion of chronic kidney disease (CKD) cost in the U.S. is borne by Medicare, most CKD patients have commercial coverage, either as primary insurance or as a Medicare supplement. This study examines the economic impact of CKD on commercial payers in the U.S.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study using IBM MarketScan® data from January 2010 - December 2018 was conducted. Patients with ≥2 outpatient (≥30 days apart) and/or ≥1 inpatient claims containing a diagnosis code for CKD were eligible for analysis. The earliest CKD diagnosis date served as the index date. Included patients were continuously enrolled for ≥6 months pre- and post-index. Annualized progression rates and direct medical costs per patient per year (PPPY) by CKD stage were analyzed for the overall CKD population and patients with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
Results: Of 753,097 CKD patients identified, 310,837 (41.3%) had diabetes. More CKD patients with pre-existing diabetes had hypertension (81.7% vs. 75.7% for overall CKD). Approximately 45% of patients in both cohorts were diagnosed at Stage 3. PPPY costs for Stages 1-5 were $19,970, $26,248, $32,687, $46,091, and $61,492, respectively. For CKD patients with pre-existing diabetes, PPPY costs were $21,028, $29,941, $37,835, $50,614, and $67,160 for Stages 1-5. The increase in Stage 5 cost over Stage 1 cost was 208% and 219% for CKD overall and CKD with pre-existing diabetes, respecitvely. Annualized CKD progression was higher for CKD patients with pre-existing diabetes compared to CKD patients overall (162 vs. 130 progressions per 1000 patients in a given year).
Conclusions: Annualized rates of CKD progression are high, with the burden of CKD increasing more than 2-fold from Stage 1 to Stage 5. Earlier identification and treatment management of CKD are needed to reduce the burden of disease.
T. Kauf: Consultant; Self; Roche Diabetes Care. W. Wang: Consultant; Self; Roche Diabetes Care. A. Dillon: Consultant; Self; Roche Diabetes Care. I. Singh: Employee; Self; Roche Diabetes Care. J.T. Odegard: None. C. Ringemann: Employee; Self; Roche Diabetes Care. S. Haldrup: Employee; Self; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.