Continuous glucose monitors (CGM) are an integral aspect in the glucose management of many individuals with type 1 diabetes, and a growing number of people with insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes (T2D). A 2019 meta-analysis of 7 randomized controlled trials that investigated CGMs for T2D reported that CGM users had significantly lower HbA1c and shorter time spent with hypoglycemia compared with self-monitoring blood glucose comparison groups. However, little is known about optimal, real world approaches for integrating CGM in the routine management of patients with T2D. A pragmatic, feasibility pilot (n=6) was conducted to document the preliminary effectiveness and acceptability of introducing CGM in the context of a 5-class diabetes self-management education (DSME) series at Scripps Health, a large, non-profit, private insurance-based health system in San Diego, CA. Prior to class 2, English- (n = 3) and Spanish-speaking (n = 3) adults with T2D self-inserted the CGM and received enough sensors to wear the CGM until 6 weeks post-DSME (10 weeks total). During classes 3-5, time was devoted to reviewing the past week’s CGM data report and participants were encouraged to make associations between glucose trends and eating and exercise patterns. CGM wear ranged from 5 to 10 weeks (M =7.8 ± 1.7 weeks). Time-in-range (70-180 mg/dL) and mean average glucose improved from 54% and 185.1 ± 67.9 mg/dL at baseline to 74% and 159.1 ± 50.5 mg/dL by the end of DSME, and to 84% and 142.7 ± 30.6 mg/dL at 4-weeks post-DSME. Self-report surveys indicated improvements in healthful eating and physical activity over this time, and participants reported very high satisfaction with the CGM; the majority expressed a desire to continue CGM use post-study. Findings highlight DSME as a promising environment for effectively integrating CGM in the management of T2D. Future research should pinpoint the duration and frequency of CGM use for optimal clinical benefit in the general T2D population.


A.L. Fortmann: None. A. Bastian: None. C.J. Lensing: Employee; Self; UnitedHealth Group. Employee; Spouse/Partner; UnitedHealth Group. S. Hoversten: Employee; Self; UnitedHealth Group. K. Luu: None. K. Barger: None. L. Talavera: None. A. Philis-Tsimikas: Advisory Panel; Self; Lilly Diabetes, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk A/S, Sanofi. Employee; Spouse/Partner; Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Research Support; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Dexcom, Inc., Lilly Diabetes, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk A/S, Sanofi.


UnitedHealth Group; Dexcom, Inc.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at