Background: Canagliflozin (CANA) slows progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with type 2 diabetes. CANA also induces a reversible acute decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which is believed to be a hemodynamic effect. Predictors of the initial decline and its association with long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes are unknown.

Methods: This post-hoc study of the CREDENCE trial included 4289 patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD who had eGFR measured at both baseline and week 3. Participants were categorized by percentage decline in eGFR at week 3: >10%, ≤10% to >0%, and ≤0%. Baseline characteristics associated with acute eGFR declines >10% were evaluated using logistic regression. Long-term eGFR decline and safety outcomes were estimated in each eGFR decline category by linear mixed effects models and Cox regression after adjustment for laboratory measures and medication use.

Results: More participants in the CANA (956 [45%]) versus placebo (PBO) group (450 [21%]) had an acute eGFR decline >10% (p<0.001). A >30% decline occurred infrequently (89 [4%] with CANA and 39 [2%] with PBO; p<0.001). In the CANA but not in the PBO group, older age (OR CANA 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.31; per 10 years) and history of heart failure (OR CANA 0.77, 0.59-0.99) were associated with a higher and lower likelihood of an acute eGFR decline >10%, respectively (both p for interaction <0.05). Following the initial eGFR change, long-term eGFR trajectories as well as overall safety profiles were similar across eGFR decline categories (all p values >0.05). Results were consistent when other decline thresholds (>20%) were used and in subgroup analysis by baseline eGFR (30-<45, 45-<60, and 60-<90 ml/min/1.73 m2).

Conclusions: Although acute eGFR declines >10% occurred in nearly half of all patients following initiation of CANA, the benefit of CANA compared with placebo was observed regardless of the acute eGFR decline and safety profiles were similar.


M. Oshima: Research Support; Self; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Program for Fostering Globally Talented Researchers. M.J. Jardine: Other Relationship; Self; See Other Relationship field. R. Agarwal: Other Relationship; Self; AbbVie Inc., Akebia Therapeutics, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer Inc., Bird Rock Bio, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Celgene, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc., Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, OPKO Health, Inc., Reata, Relypsa, Inc., Sandoz, Sanofi, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, ZS Pharma. G. Bakris: Consultant; Self; Alnylam, Merck & Co., Inc., Relypsa, Inc., Teijin Pharma Limited. Other Relationship; Self; Bayer AG, Novo Nordisk Inc., Vascular Dynamics. C. Cannon: None. D.M. Charytan: Advisory Panel; Self; Allena Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Merck & Co., Inc., PLC Medical. Employee; Self; BAIM Institute. Research Support; Self; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Other Relationship; Self; Baim, Amgen, Medtronic/Covidien, Zoll, Fresenius, Daiichi Sankyo, Douglas and London, Eli Lilly, Merck, Gilead, and Novo Nordisk. D. de Zeeuw: Advisory Panel; Self; AbbVie Inc., Bayer AG, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Fresenius Medical Care, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation. R. Edwards: Employee; Self; Janssen. T. Greene: Other Relationship; Self; Janssen, Durect, and Pfizer. A. Levin: Consultant; Self; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca K.K., Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Gilead Sciences, Inc. K.W. Mahaffey: Consultant; Self; Medscape, Mitsubishi, Myokardia, NIH, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Portola, Radiometer, Regeneron, SmartMedics, Springer Publishing, UCSF. Research Support; Self; Afferent, Amgen, Apple, Inc, AstraZeneca, Cardiva Medical, Inc, Daiichi, Ferring, Google (Verily), Johnson & Johnson, Luitpold, Medtronic, Merck, NIH, Novartis, Sanofi, St. Jude, Tenax. B. Neal: Research Support; Self; Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Merck Schering Plough, Roche Pharma, Servier, Zydus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Other Relationship; Self; Abbott, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and Servier. C.A. Pollock: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Vifor Pharma Group. Research Support; Self; Diabetes Australia. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca, Cipla Inc., MedErgy, Medscape, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Novartis AG, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Vifor Pharma Group. Other Relationship; Self; Amgen, George Institute for Global Health, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. N. Rosenthal: None. D.C. Wheeler: Advisory Panel; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Reata. Consultant; Self; AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Amgen, Astellas Pharma Inc., Mundipharma International, Napp Pharmaceuticals. H. Zhang: Employee; Self; Renal Division of Peking University First Hospital. B. Zinman: Advisory Panel; Self; Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Eli Lilly and Company, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi-Aventis. V. Perkovic: Other Relationship; Self; See Other Relationship field. H.L. Heerspink: Consultant; Self; AbbVie Inc., AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, CSL Behring, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Mundipharma International, Retrophin, Inc.


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