Adiponectin is an important adipokine that promotes insulin sensitivity and stimulates glucose and lipids metabolism. Whether maternal and fetal adiponectin influence fetal growth is not fully understood. We examined the association of maternal (at entry and 3rd trimester, 16 and 30 weeks of gestation) and cord serum adiponectin levels with fetal growth in a nested case-control study in 100 healthy mother (age 21.5±5 yr., BMI 25.7±7) and infant pairs selected from a large prospective cohort. The samples included large for gestational age (LGA, n=32) , small for gestational age (SGA, n=26) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA, n=42) newborns. Adiponectin levels (µg/ml) were analyzed by ELISA. Multivariate analyses adjusted for potential confounding variables were performed. Adiponectin level in cord serum was 2.75 and 3.3-fold higher than that in maternal serum at entry and 3rd trimester respectively (p<0.00for each) . Maternal and cord serum adiponectin were not significantly correlated at entry (r=-0.065, p>0.05) and in the third trimester (r=0.066, p >0.05) . Fetal adiponectin was significantly and positively correlated with infant birth weight, birth length, head and chest circumferences (r=0.254 to 0.337, p<0.to p<0.0001) . Moreover, the highest tertile of fetal adiponectin (highest tertile, >78.0) was associated with an increased risk of LGA (AOR 3.13, 95% CI 1.18, 8.31) , and a reduced risk of SGA (AOR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05, 0.77) . In contrast, maternal adiponectin levels at entry and 3rd trimester were not associated with infant birth weight or sizes (r=-0.132 to 0.146, p>0.for each) . Differences in maternal adiponectin among 3 groups of LGA, SGA and AGA were not statistically significant (p>0.05) . Our data suggest that increased cord adiponectin level is associated with an increased risk of LGA in healthy pregnant women. It may implicate that maternal and fetus adiponectin have opposite roles in regulating and maintaining a normal fetal growth.
X.Chen: None. J.A.Whiting: None.
National Institutes of Health (R01MD007828)