Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a result of insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cell destruction by autoreactive CD4 and CD8 T cells. There is no cure for T1D, but determining the role of immunometabolism in promoting autoreactive CD4+ T cell effector responses may provide a novel target in delaying T1D. Systemically inhibiting glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) can decrease autoreactive CD8 T cell islet infiltration. However, the effects of 2-DG on CD4 T cell diabetogenicity is unknown. Proinflammatory Th1 cells mediate β-cell destruction prefer glycolysis for maintaining effector responses, while immunosuppressive Treg cells prefer oxidative phosphorylation. We hypothesize that metabolic inhibition of glycolysis will diminish proinflammatory Th1 cell responses and delay β-cell destruction in T1D. Utilizing 2-DG, we performed an adoptive transfer of diabetogenic CD4+ T cells from NOD.BDC-2.5 or NOD.BDC-6.9 mice into NOD.scid mice. Recipient mice were systemically treated with 30 mM 2-DG in the drinking water beginning 4 days prior to adoptive transfer and monitored for hyperglycemia for 80 days post-transfer. NOD.scid mice treated with 2-DG had a significant delay in diabetes onset when transferred with either BDC-2.5 (n=14, p=0.0284) or BDC-6.9 (n=17, p=0.0249) CD4+ T cells compared to vehicle-treated groups. To define the effects of 2-DG on autoreactive CD4 T cell effector responses, NOD.BDC-6.9 splenocytes were in vitro stimulated with their cognate hybrid insulin peptide (HIP; insulin C-peptide and islet amyloid polypeptide) with or without 2-DG. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a decrease in T cell proliferation, T cell activation, and Th1 lineage commitment as shown by Ki67, CD25, and T-bet expression, respectively. Effector responses were also dampened as IFN-γ synthesis was decreased in our 2-DG treatment group compared to HIP only controls. Future studies will investigate the effects of 2-DG on CD4 T cell chemokine secretion, trafficking into the islet, and cellular metabolic profiles.
M.D.Chavez: None. R.Mcdowell: None. H.M.Tse: None.