Introduction: Frequent glucose monitoring is essential to obtaining glucose control. We assessed the costs and cost-effectiveness of using the FreeStyle Libre® Flash Continuous Glucose Monitoring system (FSL) compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in people with type 2 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections (T2D MDI) from a healthcare payer perspective in Israel.
Methods: We calculated the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Glucose monitoring costs are based on actual costs of FreeStyle Libre®, strips and lancets, assuming full adherence to monitoring. Severe hypoglycemic events (SHE) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) costs are based on real-world data from Israel and the Israeli Ministry of Health list price. Costs are presented in Israeli Shekel (ILS) and $US. The incidence rates of SHE and DKA are based on real-world data from a large cohort of patients in France. Due to the short time horizon of this analysis, we assumed no mortality differences between the two monitoring alternatives. Utility increments for the use of CGM vs. SMBG, decrease in HbA1C and disutility for SHE and DKA events are based on estimates from the literature. The analysis was conducted over a 5-year time horizon, applying an annual discount rate of 3% on costs and outcomes. One way sensitivity analyses were performed on difference in costs.
Results: FreeStyle Libre® use is associated with a cost increase of ILS 27,021 ($US 8,444) and an increase of 0.26 QALYs, generating an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of ILS 103,977 ($US 32,493) per QALY gained. These results are highly sensitive to changes in costs of glucose monitoring.
Conclusion: Assuming a willingness to pay threshold of $US 43,600 per QALY gained (GDP per capita in Israel in 2020) , the FreeStyle Libre® system is a highly cost-effective glucose monitoring alternative to SMBG for T2D MDI patients in Israel.
D.Greenberg: Advisory Panel; Abbott Diabetes, Consultant; Geffen Medical, Israel.