A study of neonatal problems of 329 liveborn infants of diabetic mothers indicates that prematurity is the single most significant factor influencing outcome. The direct relationship of prematurity to increased incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, hyperbilirubinemia, and neonatal mortality is demonstrated. Severity of maternal diabetes, while extremely important in relation to stillbirth, does not seem to be as significant a factor in liveborn infants. The present plan of care designed to deal with these problems in liveborn infants at the Boston Lying-in Hospital has been presented.

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