L-arginine was infused (30 gm. per 30 min.) in normal subjects, mild maturity-onset and prematurity-onset diabetic subjects, all of whom were nonobese. Increases in blood glucose were slight in the normal subjects, moderate in the maturity-onset diabetics and marked in the prematurityonset diabetics. The maturity-onset diabetics had a poor immunoreactive serum insulin (IRI) response to arginine compared with the normal subjects. In the first two groups, there was a highly significant correlation between the IRI response to arginine and the subsequent fall in the blood glucose level at 60 min. The IRI response could not be evaluated in the third group because of antibodies induced by chronic insulin therapy. Arginine appears to be a useful tool in the study of the diabetic state. Abnormal glucose and insulin responses can be detected even in mild forms of the disease.

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