Studies were carried out in conscious dogs in which the immunoreactive gastric inhibitory polypeptide (IR-GIP) response to graded doses of oral fat (triglycerides) and glucose was investigated. The IR-GIP response to the doses of triglycerides used was greater and more prolonged than the response to the glucose loads employed. In addition, the relative insulinotropic potencies of exogenous porcine GIP and IR-GIP released by fat as against those released by oral glucose were assessed. When glucose was administered by the oral route, the immunoreactive insulin (IRI) response was magnified above the IRI response to a comparable intravenous glucose load. The serum IRI response to oral glucose was accompanied by a concomitant rise in serum IR-GIP levels, suggesting a causal relationship. IR-GIP released by oral fat was shown to augment the IRI response to an intravenous glucose load, resulting in an improvement of glucose tolerance. Fat-released IR-GIP augmented IRI levels to a lessor degree than either oral glucose or an infusion of porcine GIP.

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