HL-A antigens were determined in 100 patients with diabetes mellitus. When the data are combined with that from other studies, there is a definite positive association of acute-onset juvenile diabetes mellitus with HL-A8 and W15. Four families are described in which two or more members with this type of diabetes are present, and in each family, affected individuals share a haplotype including HL-A8 or W15. These findings are consistent with the possible role of immune response genes in the HL-A chromosomal region which might control the immune response to virus infections capable of producing islet cell damage.

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