Plasma lipids, blood glucose, and urinary glucose excretion were measured in 270 juvenile diabetic children upon admission to and throughout periods of summer camping during which the effect of a usual and a modified diabetic diet was assessed. The usual diabetic diet contained 700-1,500 mg. cholesterol daily with a polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratio of 0.1, while the modified diet limited cholesterol to 300 mg. daily with a P/S ratio of 1.0. Both diets maintained calories with 40 per cent as fat, 40 per cent as carbohydrate, and 20 per cent as protein. Analysis of fasting blood glucose, qualitative and quantitative glucose excretion, and body weight indicated that groups were comparable except for the diet used.
Elevated mean levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were approximately equally distributed in diabetic children of both sexes upon admission to camp, with 24 per cent demonstrating hyperlipoproteinemia. Eleven per cent had type II, 10 per cent type IV, and 3 per cent type V hyperlipoproteinemia upon admission. After following the usual diet, 21 per cent were type II, 1 per cent type IV, and none type V, with no reduction in the over-all incidence of hyperlipoproteinemia despite lower triglyceride and glucose levels. After consumption of the modified diet, hyperlipoproteinemia was reduced to 5 per cent, with 4 per cent type II and 1 per cent type IV.
Results of this study indicated that plasma lipids in juvenile diabetics were elevated when first observed and that the control of blood sugar levels along with a diabetic diet with lower cholesterol and increased polyunsaturated fat significantly reduced the incidence of hyperlipoproteinemia more effectively than control of blood sugar levels alone.