Serum GIP, insulin, and glucose concentrations were determined during a standard oral glucose tolerance test in 80 individuals, 45 of whom were normal and 35 of whom had adult-onset diabetes mellitus according to USPHS criteria. As a group, the diabetics had fasting hyperglycemia (219 ± 17 mg./dl.) and, in response to glucose, displayed a peak serum glucose of 373 ± 23 mg./dl. and sustained hyperglycemia (315 ± 24 mg./dl.) at 180 minutes. There were no statistically significant differences in absolute serum insulin levels between the two groups. However, insulin secretion was delayed, IRI increments were smaller, and the IRI concentrations were inappropriately low for the simultaneous serum glucose concentrations in the diabetics at every time interval tested. Mean fasting serum GIP was 335 ± 30 pg./ml. in the diabetics as against 262 ± 15 pg./ml. in normal individuals (p < 0.025). After the ingestion of glucose, diabetics had significantly higher (p < 0.001) mean serum GIP levels between five and 120 minutes. By 180 minutes, serum GIP levels remained above fasting in both groups, but the diabetics had higher than normal serum concentrations (p < 0.05). Peak serum GIP concentrations, which occurred at 30 minutes in both groups, were 1,376 ± 106 and 806 ± 75 pg./ml. in the diabetics and normals, respectively (p < 0.001). Total integrated serum GIP was also greater in diabetics than normals (140,852 ± 14,208 vs. 64,602 ± 8,719 pg.-min./ml.−1, p < 0.001). The higher serum GIP concentrations observed following glucose ingestion in diabetics could not be attributed to obesity or age. We conclude that both fasting and glucose-stimulated GIP concentrations are higher than normal in obese adult-onset diabetics. The significance of this observation is uncertain. However, since our current understanding suggests the GIP may be an important enteric signal for the release of insulin in man, and because GIP has been shown to stimulate the release of immunoreactive glucagon, GIP may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.

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