The effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, substance P, somatostatin, and a partially purified hypothalamic extract on insulin secretion were tested both in vitro and in vivo. Only somatostatin and the hypothalamic extract affected insulin secretion. In vitro, somatostatin decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by isolated islets and in vivo significantly reduced the rate of insulin output into the portal vein. The hypothalamic extract significantly stimulated insulin secretion in both systems. These effects in vivo were independent of glucose concentration. Islets preincubated for four hours responded better in vitro to the hypothalamic extract stimulation and the somatostatin inhibition.

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