These studies suggest that the immunologic indicator in the radioimmune assay, 125I-iodoinsulin, selects antibody populations from within the antiserum that interact with determinants distant from the solvent surface on the insulin molecule to which iodine is substituted. Evidence is presented that the connecting peptide of proinsulin is in close proximity to regions on the solvent surface of the A-chain of insulin that include the tyrosyl residues at A-14 and A-19.
A marked immunologic cross-reaction between derivatives of insulin with perturbations in the regions of tyrosyl A-14 and A-19 was noted in the radioimmune assay employing desalanine-(B-30)-desasparagine-(A-21)-insulin antiserum. This observation is consistent with the presence of a restricted population of antibodies in such antisera that is directed toward immunologic determinants in or near the insulin dimer site.
The apparent immunologic activity of insulin derivatives depends on which antibody populations from the antiserum pool can react with the immunologic indicatory employed on the one hand and on the composition of antibodies in that antiserum on the other. These studies indicate that the specificity of antibody populations in a given antiserum can be identified and their levels quantitated with several assay systems, each employing one of a variety of indicators.