Glucose, insulin, and growth hormone values were studied prospectively in 75 premature infants during the first five days after birth. Intravenous glucose was given at a mean rate of 4.7–4.9 mg./kg./in. (range 3–7). Mean birth weight was 1,394 α 47 gm. (mean α S.E.M.). Blood glucose values were significantly higher on days 1 and 2 than on days 3 to 5. Hypoglycemia (blood glucose <20 mg./100 ml.) occurred in two SGA and one AGA infants. On the other hand, hyperglycemia (>125 mg./100 ml.) was found in 32 of the 75 (42.7 per cent) infants. A significantly greater number of deaths occurred in infants with hyperglycemia (19/32) than in those with normoglycemia (19/32) than in those with normoglycemia (5/43). Mean plasma insulin values were significantly higher on days 1 and 2 (15 α 3 and 18 α 4 μU./ml.) than on days 3 and 4–5 (6 α 1 and 7 α 2 μU./ml.). In addition, mean insulin levels were significantly higher during hyperglycemic than during normoglycemic glucose levels at similar postnatal age. Growth hormone values were higher during the first three days than subsequently, but the values were similar in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic groups. Significant negative correlations were seen between glucose values on the first two days of postnatal life and birth weight, gestational age, and Apgar scores, whereas positive correlations were found with FiO2 and respiratory distress score (RDS).

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