Phenformin concentrations were measured in serum from seven patients with phenformin-associated lactic acidosis, and initial values ranging from 20 to 625 ng./ml. were obtained. Five of the seven patients had serum concentrations within the usual therapeutic range of up to 241 ng./ml. Serum phenformin concentrations were measured serially, and apparent half-lives of 5, 25, and 30 hours were obtained in three patients with serum creati nine concentrations of 1.7, 7.6, and 6.0 mg./dl., respectively. Although the half-life of phenformin was prolonged in azotemic patients, no correlation between serum creatinine concentration and serum phenformin could be demonstrated; furthermore, the severity of lactic acidosis as measured by arterial pH and lactate concentration did not correlate with the serum creatinine concentration.