The early time courses of insulin release were studied by injecting insulinotropic substances directly into a dog's pancreatic artery. Blood samples from the pancreatic vein were collected every five seconds continuously over 90 seconds and were assayed for their insulin concentrations. Injections were repeated two to five times, with intervals of 30 minutes. Insulin release was stimulated within one minute after injection of each of tetragastrin, tolbutamide, xylitol, and glucose, but the time courses of the release of insulin were different with different stimulants: Tetragastrin and tolbutamide increased insulin release faster than did glucose; xylitol produced a slower insulin release than did glucose. The slower insulin-releasing effects of glucose and xylitol than the other agents would be compatible with the theory that their metabolism is required to cause release of insulin, but it is also possible that the glucoreceptor mechanism may require a longer lag time than the other receptor mechanisms for the perception and transfer of the signal to release insulin.

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