Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, in contrast to non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus, is associated with HLA factors B8, BW15, and B18.

Recent studies have shown the association to be even stronger with HLA, DW3, and DW4 and have produced evidence for the existence of two “diabetogenic” genes predisposing to insulindependent diabetes in different ways. Evidence to suggest the existence of a gene—associated with DW2—that protects against the disease is accumulating.

Islet cell antibodies are a feature of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and can be seen, in most cases, at the time of diagnosis.

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