We measured circulating hemoglobin A1 (HbA1) and fasting plasma C-peptide concentrations in 100 diabetic patients. Pancreatic insulin reserve showed a negative correlation with HbA1 concentrations in nonobese, insulin-treated patients but not in obese patients, whether they were treated with insulin, oral agent, or diet alone. Patients with fasting C-peptide concentrations above 0.1 pmol/ml had significantly better metabolic control than did those with lower values.
Anti-insulin antibodies were measured in 37 patients. There was no correlation between metabolic control and the affinity constants or binding capacities of these antibodies.