The immunohistochemical distribution of the vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein (CaBP) was studied in the cerebellar vermis of 14 adult type (NIDDM) diabetic and 13 nondiabetic human subjects. In both groups, CaBP-immunoreactive material was found in Purkinje cells and in axons of the cortical white matter, but, when compared with controls, the positive structures had a significantly (P < 0.001) reduced volume density in 12 of the 14 diabetic subjects. The reduction of the volume density of CaBP-positive structures in diabetic subjects was not due to an overall reduced volume of the molecular layer or of the cortical white matter. These results complement previous reports of a reduction of CaBP levels in duodenum and kidney of diabetic subjects.

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