DBA/2 and Balb/cBY mice were infected with approximately 30 plaque-forming units of the M-variant of encephalomyocarditis (EMC-M) virus. Seven days after inoculation the majority of the animals of both strains were hyperglycemic. A significant correlation between increased concentrations of virus in the pancreas and hyperglycemia was found among individual DBA/2 animals, but not among Balb/cBY mice. T-lymphocyte depletion of DBA/2 mice before infection failed to alter the incidence or severity of hyperglycemia in comparison to intact animals. Conversely, hyperglycemia in Tlymphocyte-depleted Balb/cBY mice was reduced substantially in comparison to infected immunocompetent animals. There appears to be at least two genetically influenced pathogenic mechanisms of diabetes in EMCM virus-infected mice. In some strains of animals,hyperglycemia results exclusively from viral infection and the consequent injury to the beta cells, whereas in other animals, viral damage to the islets is compounded by immunologic events.

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