Preincubation of collagenase-isolated rat islets for 150 min with 100 U/ml purified human interleukin 1 (IL-1) altered their ability to secrete insulin. Whereas basal release rates with 4 mM glucose were comparable in control and IL-1-treated islets, both the first and second phases of release in response to 20 mM glucose were significantly reduced from IL-1-treated tissue. IL-1 pretreatment also impaired the secretory response to the combination of 100 nM cholecystokinin plus 7 mM glucose. However, the secretory response to 10 mM α-ketoisocaproate was comparable in control and IL-1-pretreated islets. Reducing the IL-1 exposure time to 60 min was accompanied by an augmented first phase of release to 20 mM glucose. Second phase secretion was diminished. The use of glucose measured after the perifusion was similar in control and IL-1-treated islets. Similar to other compounds that adversely impact on β-cell viability, the inhibitory effect of IL-1 on release may presage a cytotoxic action of monokine.

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