The pancreatic β-cell mass and function in C57BL/KsJ mice is markedly reduced the day after the last injection of five daily injections of a subdiabetogenic, 40 mg/kg, dose of streptozocin (STZ). In this study, we prepared an H-2 alloantiserum by injecting C57BL/6J mice (H-2b) with spleen lymphocytes from C57BL/KsJ (H-2d) mice. The alloantiserum given on five consecutive days, 5 h before each injection of STZ, did not prevent the initial β-cytotoxic effect of STZ detected by perfusion of the pancreas and subsequent morphometric analysis of in situ dithizone-perfused pancreas. However, 12 days after the first injection of STZ, total insulin release in response to D-glucose, total pancreatic insujin, and pancreatic glucagon was greater in the alloantiserum-treated mice compared with controls receiving normal mouse serum. It is concluded that an H-2 alloantiserum may protect the function and amounts of β-cells remaining after the initial five lowdose STZ injections.

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