Thirteen obese children and matched controls were fed a mixed meal, and responses were evaluated at fixed intervals for glucose, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). The obese children were evaluated before and within 48 h after completion of a 5-mo exercise training program (ETP). The ETP included three aerobic exercise sessions per week and modest diet restrictions. Caloric expenditure was increased by ∼300 kcal/exercise session. Weight gain was minimal over the 5 mo. An unexpected increase in GIP response and improved insulin tolerance were recorded for the obese children post-ETP. GIP values were higher (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60 min and led to a highly significant elevation (P < 0.01) of the integrated GIP response for post-ETP obese versus both pre-ETP and normal-weight controls. Insulin values were lower (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60 min and led to a lower integrated insulin response (P < 0.0585) for post-ETP obese children. However, the obese children continued to secrete more insulin (P < 0.05) than normal-weight controls. Glucose tolerance, similar for pre-ETP obese subjects and controls, did not change in post-ETP children.
Exercise-induced improvement in glucose utilization in these obese children was associated with an increase in GIP secretion. This contrasts with reports that calorie restriction will improve glucose utilization with decreased insulin and GIP secretion. The study demonstrates a previously unreported uncoupling of GIP and insulin secretion and suggests shifts in peripheral tissue sensitivity to insulin-induced glucose uptake. These shifts may, in part, be influenced by GIP.