In some patients with genetic forms of extreme insulin resistance, there is a marked decrease in the number of insulin receptors on the cell surface. We studied an insulin-resistant patient (RM-1) with the Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome. As judged by insulin-binding studies, Epstein-Barr virus–transformed lymphocytes from patient RM-1 exhibit a 90% decrease in the number of insulin receptors. Similarly, with either lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination of cell surface receptors or biosynthetic labeling of receptors with [3H]glucos-amine, we demonstrated an 80–90% decrease in the number of insulin receptors in cells from patient RM-1.
Previous studies have shown that the marked decrease in insulin receptors of the Rabson-Mendenhall patient is not due to accelerated receptor degradation. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that a slow rate of receptor biosynthesis might account for the 90% reduction of insulin receptors in cells from this patient.
Insulin-receptor biosynthesis proceeds through a glycoprotein precursor with an apparent M, of 190,000. It undergoes endopeptidase cleavage and further post-translational processing to yield the mature 135,000- and 95,000-Mr glycoprotein subunits. We studied the biosynthesis of the 190,000-Mr precursor and mature receptor subunits by a pulse-chase labeling technique with [2-3H]mannose. The time course of insulin-receptor biosynthesis appeared normal in cells from patient RM-1, despite a 10-fold reduction in the number of receptors on the cell surface. Parallel pulse-chase experiments with either [2-3H]mannose or [35S]methionine yielded the same results regardless of which label was employed. Thus, the receptor precursor in the Rabson-Mendenhall patient seems to be synthesized at a normal rate. Moreover, once the receptor is inserted in the membrane, it appears to be degraded at a normal rate. Therefore, we propose that there may be a defect subsequent to the synthesis of the receptor but before insertion of the receptor into the plasma membrane.