The plasma concentration of 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (AG) was measured in 135 newly diagnosed patients who were referred for oral glucose tolerance tests. AG concentrations in the nondiabetic patients indicated that the mean value of normal AG concentration was 21.8 μg/ml (SD = 5.9 μg/ml, range 9.6–38.8 μg/ml). This distribution of AG concentration was significantly different from that in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (13.3 ± 5.4 μg/ml) and definitely different from that in diabetic patients (2.1 ± 1 . 8 μg/ml). In a standard glucagon test, it was suggested that the decrease of plasma AG was affected not only by glycemic control of the patients but also by pancreatic cell secretory activity. The reduction of AG concentration was more marked in IDDM patients than in NIDDM patients. In longitudinal studies, AG concentration was shown to be sensitive to glycemic control. However, its recovery showed a tendency toward much delay after the improvement of fasting blood glucose or HbA, concentrations. On the other hand, AG concentration showed negligible diurnal change and no immediate change as a result of diet, oral glucose load, or acute shift of the insulin level in both normal and diabetic subjects.

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