IgG proinsulin autoantibodies (IgG-PAAs) have been found in a fraction of sera from patients with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) before onset of insulin treatment. Only sera lacking insulin antibodies have been analyzed, to avoid interference. Competitive inhibition studies provide specificity for human proinsulin but not for insulin. IgG-PAAs largely cross-react with human C-peptide. Precursors of insulin thus are involved in the immune process of IDDM.

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