CS-045 is a new oral antidiabetic agent that was effective in insulin-resistant diabetic animal models, including the KK mouse, the ob/ob mouse, and the Zucker fatty rat. CS-045 was not effective in the streptozocin-treated mouse, an insulin-deficient diabetic animal model. In fed KK mice, CS-045 lowered the plasma glucose levels in a dosedependent manner after a single oral administration, and the hypoglycemic effect lasted for at least 18 h. In normal rats, however, plasma glucose levels were not changed after administration of CS-045. CS-045 when given chronically (2 wk) to diabetic KK and ob/ob mice as a 0.2% food admixture dramatically improved hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia to near-normal values and decreased plasma lactate, free fatty acid, and ketone body levels without reducing food intake or body weight. In the obese Zucker fatty rat, oral administration of CS-045 had a similar effect in lowering plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, free fatty acid, lactate, and ketone body levels. The CS-045–treated Zucker fatty rats showed increased glucose tolerance and decreased insulin secretion in response to oral glucose. After 9 days of treatment, insulin binding to adipocyte plasma membranes from both CS-045-treated Zucker fatty rats and KK mice was increased. Furthermore, 2-deoxyglucose uptake in CS-045-treated adipocytes was increased and the insulin dose-response curve was shifted to the left. These findings suggest that CS-045 increases not only insulin sensitivity but also insulin responsiveness. Based on its pharmacological profile, CS-045 is a new orally effective antidiabetic agent that may reduce abnormalities of glucose and lipid metabolism in obese and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with insulin resistance.

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